What do you know about chromosomes

A structure which is in the cell which contains all the genetic material of the cell is known as a chromosome. The genetic material is the building block which determines how the organism will develop. This consists of DNA which again is divided into subunits which are called as genes.

trna

History

The term chromosome was used by Waldeyer-Hartz which described structures which were formed when the cell was divided.

Components

The chromosome has a DNA module and several protein kinds as well. The DNA has nucleotides which are joined to each other in long chains. A DNA molecule which is in a chromosome could be as long as 8.5 cms long. In order to fit this into the chromosome therefore the DNA molecule has to be folded and twisted into a shape that is extremely complex.

Functions

Each of the species have different number of chromosomes which are in the nuclei. Lilies for example have 24 chromosomes, chimps have 48, horses have 64, mosquitoes have 6 and the Adder’s tongue fern has 1000+ chromosomes. However, most species range between 10 to 50 chromosomes. Humans have 46.

These 46 pairs of chromosomes are arranged into 23 different pairs. One of these 23 pairs are known as the sex hormones and they determine the sex of the organism. Males have an X and Y chromosome. Females have both X chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are passed on by the father trna. The X chromosome has 3 times the size of the Y chromosome and it carries 100 times more information than the Y chromosome.

The genes in the DNA molecule contains information for creating a single protein kind. These are very important. The cells have specific functions which they need to perform. Genes tell cells how the different chemical compounds need to be manufactured so that they properly can function.